About Roses

About RosesRoses are among the most favored flowers.

It is a commonly accepted idea, that a single rose can speak thousands of words. A single rose can perfectly denote, betray one’s feelings. Thus roses became tokens of love, appreciation, caring, fondness. In what follows I would like to offer a general presentation of these beautiful flowers. In my paper I will present:  * Rose’s definition
•    Its history
•    Species
•    Cultivation
•    Pruning
•    Its symbolisms in culture
•    List of persons named after rosesThe term “rose” comes from Latin rosa. A rose is according to Wikipedia, in fact a flowering shrub of the genus Rosa, and the flower of this shrub. We can distinguish more than a hundred species of wild roses. These can be found mostly at the northern hemisphere, in the temperate regions. The species can be grouped under the category of prickly shrubs, or climbers, eventually trailing plants, reaching 2 to 5 metres tall, or even reaching as high as 20 metres by climbing over other plants.Its leaves are 5 to 15 centimetres long, pinnate, with (3-), 5-9, (-13) leaflets and basal stipules. These leaflets have usually a serrated margin, few small prickles on the underside of the stem. The vast majority of roses are deciduous, but there are some in Southest Asia, which are evergreen or nearly so. Usually the flowers of most species have 5 petals, but Rosa sericea is an exception, having only 4 petals. Each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals (in the case of some Rosa sericea only 4). The ovary is inferior, developing below the petals and sepals.While we tend to call the sharp objects along a rose stem "thorns", they are in fact prickles — outgrowths of the epidermis (the outer layer of tissue of the stem). These enable the rose to hang onto the other vegetation when growing over it.    After presenting this flower, I now wish to put forth some ideas about its history. Roses were very much liked by the ancient Romans and Greeks. They associated roses with their godesses of love, Aphrodite and Venus.Rose culture came into Europe in the 1800s from China. There are currently thousands of varieties of roses developed for bloom shape, size, fragrance and even for lack of prickles. There are currently thousands of varieties of roses developed for bloom shape, size, fragrance and even for lack of prickles. http://www.learn-about-roses.com/Roses_Cultivation.php

  Rose species include:
Rosa canina — Dog Rose, Briar Bush
Rosa chinensis — China Rose
Rosa dumalis — Glaucous Dog Rose
Rosa gallica — Gallic Rose, French Rose
Rosa gigantea (syn. R. x odorata gigantea)
Rosa glauca (syn. R. rubrifolia) — Redleaf Rose
Rosa laevigata (syn. R. sinica) — Cherokee Rose,
Camellia Rose, Mardan Rose Rosa multiflora — Multiflora Rose
Rosa persica (syn. Hulthemia persica, R. simplicifolia)
Rosa roxburghii — Chestnut Rose
Burr Rose Rosa rubiginosa (syn. R. eglanteria) — Eglantine
Sweet Brier
Rosa rugosa — Rugosa Rose
Japanese Rose Rosa spinosissima — Scotch Rose
Rosa stellata — Gooseberry Rose, Sacramento Rose
Rosa virginiana (syn. R. lucida) — Virginia Rose http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rose

The cultivation of roses is enabled by the fact that many roses are easy to grow. Thus roses quickly became the number 1 favourite’s of garden flowers. When considering the idea of cultivate roses, you should bear in mind certain aspects. First of all roses need temperate climate, sun and soil preparation. Roses should be planted to  a site, which gets at least a few hours of sun each day. Moreover roses appreciate good soil preparation. The addition of a generous quantity of well rotted manure or an organic compost and bone meal both before planting and as an annual mulch in the spring will make almost any soil suitable. When planting roses, you should keep in mind that in a formal bedding scheme, the ideal distance for roses is 18". Regular watering is essential for the rose to be strong, healthy and to produce more flowers. Depending on your climate, deep watering is recommended at least once a week or more frequently. Winter protection can be attained by initial deep planting and burial of the stems with about ten inches of partly composted shredded bark or sawdust. If there is extremely cold, a waterproof covering over the top has to be placed. Concerning their feeding it can be stated that roses need a generous supply of nutrients throughout the growing season. Long term, organic fertilizers when applied to the ground, are really effective. Moreoever foliar feeds are also valuable for a quick effect and help keeping the leaves healthy. Prunning is an essential step in the cultivation of roses. It is very easy and it should be carried out as soon as spring growth starts. In the process of prunning one should first remove any dead, diseased or very weak growth from the plant. Stems that have become very old, woody and are not producing vigorous new stems have to be removed. For all general rose pruning (including cutting flowers for arrangements), sharp secateurs (hand-held, sickle-bladed pruners) should be used to cut any growth 1/2" or less in diameter. For canes of a thickness greater than 1/2", pole loppers or a small handsaw are generally more effective; secateurs may be damaged or broken in such instances. Deadheading similarly to prunning is another important step in the cultivation of roses. It can be regarded the simple practice of manually removing the faded, withered or discolored flowers from the rose shrubs during the blooming season. Deadheading is done for several reasons: it promotes rebloom, keeps shrubs looking tidy, and helps to eliminate stem dieback as well as excess debris accumulation in the garden.
Having presented all these related to the cultivation of roses, I now wish to turn to proceed with its symbolism in culture. Roses are considered to be the ancient symbols of love and beauty. Rose was adopted by Christianity as well, it is used as a symbol of Virgin Mary. The rose is England’s and the USA’s national flower. Roses also appeared in architecture. They represent the basis for the design of rose windows, which comprise of five or ten segments. Gothic rose windows are especially liked and admired. Robert Bangert developed a theory (language of flowers) according to which, the rose colors carry a certain symbolic meaning. These are the following:
Red: love, "I Love You"
Pink: grace, gentle feelings of love
Dark Pink: gratitude
Light Pink: admiration, sympathy
White: innocence, purity, secrecy, friendship, reverence and humility.
Yellow: often akin to joy and deep friendship or platonic love. In German-speaking countries, however, they can mean jealousy and infidelity.
Yellow with red tips: Friendship, falling in love
Orange: passion Blue: mystery    
Roses inspired many artists from all walks of life. Many painters, writers, poets created works of art. Renoir’s famous painting of cabbage roses is one of the many paintings about roses. John Boyle O'Reilly’s poem entitled A White Rose is one of the poems inspired by roses of exceptional beauty:                                   
THE red rose whispers of passion,             
And the white rose breathes of love;          
O the red rose is a falcon,             
And the white rose is a dove.          
But I send you a cream-white rosebud               
With a flush on its petal tips;           
For the love that is purest and sweetest               
Has a kiss of desire on the lips.    http://www.bartleby.com/101/831.html

Roses were not only named in literature, but also in real life. Several roses were named in   real life as well. Several roses were named after people. Among the individuals who have had roses named after them are the following: Audrey Hepburn, Barbara Streisand, Carry Grant, Christian Dior, Christopher Marlowe, Claudia Cardinale, Marylin Monroe, Napoleon, William Shakespeare etc. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_roses_named_after_people

In conclusion it can be asserted that roses are very important elements in our life, that delight, charm and inspire us. Never hesitate to send a bunch of roses to your loved ones!